Top 5 Recent Research on Machine Learning and Deep Learning

Machine learning and Deep Learning research advances are transforming our technology. Here are the 5 most important (most-cited) scientific papers that have been published since 2014, starting with “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting”.

Machine learning, especially its subfield of Deep Learning, had many amazing advances in the recent years, and important research papers may lead to breakthroughs in technology that get used by billions of people. The research in this field is developing very quickly and to help our readers monitor the progress we present the list of most important recent scientific papers published since 2014.

1. Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting, by Hinton, G.E., Krizhevsky, A., Srivastava, N., Sutskever, I., & Salakhutdinov, R. (2014). Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15, 1929-1958. (cited 2084 times, HIC: 142 , CV: 536)

2. Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition, by He, K., Ren, S., Sun, J., & Zhang, X. (2016). CoRR, abs/1512.03385. (cited 1436 times, HIC: 137 , CV: 582).
Summary: We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of deep neural networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth.

3. Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift, by Sergey Ioffe, Christian Szegedy (2015) ICML. (cited 946 times, HIC: 56 , CV: 0).
Summary: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer’s inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change.  We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs.  Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin.

4. Large-Scale Video Classification with Convolutional Neural Networks , by Fei-Fei, L., Karpathy, A., Leung, T., Shetty, S., Sukthankar, R., & Toderici, G. (2014). IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cited 865 times, HIC: 24 , CV: 239)
Summary: Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been established as a powerful class of models for image recognition problems. Encouraged by these results, we provide an extensive empirical evaluation of CNNs on large-scale video classification using a new dataset of 1 million YouTube videos belonging to 487 classes .

5. Microsoft COCO: Common Objects in Context , by Belongie, S.J., Dollár, P., Hays, J., Lin, T., Maire, M., Perona, P., Ramanan, D., & Zitnick, C.L. (2014). ECCV. (cited 830 times, HIC: 78 , CV: 279) Summary: We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.

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